As a RD, I have gotten so many questions about the fad diet du jour: the "Keto" or "Ketogenic" diet. I finally decided to just write down the research in a reader-friendly version. Additional video on the history and use of the ketogenic diet at the bottom of this post. Here you go-
The ketogenic (or “keto”) diet is just another fad diet.
The Keto diet is an amped-up Atkin’s diet (that we all know now was/is terrible for your cardiovascular system, and not a sustainable way to keep weight off) where the majority of what you eat comes from fat, and carbohydrates are extremely limited (In contrast, a healthy diet should be a much more balanced macronutrient distribution of 20-35% protein, 45-65% carbohydrate, and only 10-35% fat). This skewed macronutrient distribution is actually very dangerous for the human body for several reasons -
#1, We use carbohydrate as fuel for our brain. Glucose is needed for cognitive function, and many people on the Ketogenic diet experience brain fog and difficulty focusing. Ketone bodies (specifically: beta-hydroxybutyrate (built up in blood serum), acetoacetate (found in urine), and acetone (responsible for that bad breath)), which are created when carbohydrates are not present, are not as effective (or healthy) for our brain. This may also cause metabolic acidosis which is characterized by a reduced pCO2 and/or lower pH (we need to stay in balance!).
#2, On a ketogenic diet, your intake of fruits and vegetables is extremely limited (if eaten at all) and we all know how important the fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other compounds in fruits/veggies are. On that note…
#3, The keto diet is extremely low in fiber! Fiber is not only protective against many gastrointestinal cancers, it is also a big factor in fullness and weight loss. Furthermore, constipation is very common on low-fiber diets like the Keto diet.
#4, Ketosis/ketoacidosis is what is happening in the body/brain on a chemical level – this is the body making fat into something the brain can use when carbohydrates are not available. It's a lot of work for the the body to produce, not as efficient as carbohydrate, and can be incredibly dangerous for diabetics. Additionally, we have some cells with few-to-no mitochondria. These cells are carbohydrate-dependant and must be fueled by glucose. These cells include certain cells with no mitochondria in our blood (erythrocytes), eyes (cornea, lens, and retina); cells with few mitochondria include renal medulla, testis, and leukocytes. (https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11883-003-0038-6)
#5, “Keto breath.” Halitosis (bad breath) from (acetone) ketone bodies makes for an acetone-like smell on your breath that no amount of brushing/mouthwash can fix. Medical professionals look for (smell for?) this in malnourished patients.
#6, High blood lipids/cholesterol/blood pressure. It’s a high fat diet- you didn’t see this coming? The body can only break nutrients down at a certain rate, and high levels of fat in the diet may lead to high levels of blood lipids are responsible for blockages (atherosclerosis), and other cardiovascular complications up to death. While you can reverse the numbers, the plaque buildup in arteries is almost impossible to reverse. Not worth it! (note: some people do see lowered blood lipid profiles on this diet).
#7, Following this diet is often a form of disordered eating or may lead to an eating disorder (just as with any restrictive diet). Cutting out whole food groups is not healthy. We need all 3 macronutrients in appropriate proportions (majority coming from carbohydrates) to have a healthy body. Our body needs a variety of foods for best health. The reason this diet “works” for weight loss is that it restricts the types of foods that people tend to over-do-it-on like chips, candy, pastries, etc. Any diet that cuts out your favorite foods will cause weight loss, but at what cost (physically and mentally?)
#8, Not all fats are created equal. Most people starting a Keto diet are not differentiating between saturated (solid at room temp, and not something we want in large quantities) and unsaturated fats (liquid at room temp, and “healthier”). Getting this wrong also increases complications from the diet. Additionally, many people who followed a diet high in medium-chain-triglycerides (MCT) experienced undesirable digestive issues.
#9, It may mess with your thyroid and other hormones – lowering your metabolism (isn’t the point of this diet weight loss? That’s counter-intuitive…), energy, and fertility. Every time we lower our metabolism through dieting it lowers the “set-point” of our metabolism, making it harder and harder to lose weight. This is an adaptive response for mammals in famine, but not what the average person wants nowadays.
Who it the Keto diet appropriate for?
The only population that the ketogenic diet is scientifically proven to be beneficial (and safe) for is a select group of people with epilepsy (seizure disorders). This is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
The Keto diet especially sucks for athletes (and people working out to lose weight)
Since our preferred fuel source is glucose (carbohydrate) from either blood glucose or glycogen (fancy term for carbohydrate stores in the liver and muscle cells), running exclusively on fat slows athletic performance as the body works much harder to break down fat (dietary and adipose storage).
Additionally, the lower protein intake and change in hormones in the body with a keto diet lower the ability to build and maintain muscle mass. If “mirror muscles” like biceps are not motivating enough to keep you off it- remember that our organs like the heart are also muscle tissue that would be broken down by this diet, causing organ damage or failure.
It’ll get you, mentally and emotionally
Ketogenic diets cause headaches, brain fog, and often irritability and obsession with food. This type of diet will very likely make you think about food an unnecessarily large amount of time, and make it difficult to be social (not being able to eat at the same places as your friends; oh, and that bad breath!).
You may feel more depressed (especially if you are already prone to depression and/or taking antidepressants) as serotonin (the “happy” neurochemical) is produced from carbohydrates. If you take an SSRI know that this class of medications work directly on serotonin that is present, and the diet requires a minimum about of carbohydrate (as we learned from the works of Ancel Keys in his starvation study) to allow the SSRI medication to work.
So, what’s the verdict?
In case you didn’t get it from the above – the Keto diet sucks. Not only is it a fad-diet (aka – not suitable for long-term weight loss/lifestyle), it can be very dangerous.
If you need help figuring out what to eat, contact a Registered Dietitian. In the meantime, if you do need some structure, balanced eating like the Mediterranean diet or DASH diet is a better way to go.
For a YouTube video with more information on this diet: click the image below
Don’t give up the foods you love. There is room for all foods in a healthy diet. We just need to keep proportions and variety in mind to fuel our body optimally.
Want more nutrition education? Sign up for the email list by clicking the button below
How I experienced “To The Bone” as an eating disorder expert & Why you need to carefully consider if you should watch it
There was a lot of buzz leading up to the release of Netflix’s “To The Bone” on July 14, 2017. As a Registered Dietitian who specializes in eating disorders I was intrigued. In this film, actress Lily Collins played Ellen, a young woman with anorexia nervosa who goes into a couple of different treatment centers and bounces back out to home or hospitals. Collins has been very forthcoming that she previously struggled with anorexia nervosa, which made me more nervous about her losing weight for the role.
When I first heard that there was going to be a film made about eating disorders, I thought this would be a great opportunity to raise awareness of what eating disorders are like. And hopefully get people talking in a productive way about the different types of eating disorders and how it is not a good thing to get one...but as the trailer and initial interviews came out in the weeks leading up to the release, I instead became worried that it would not only depict the stereotypical white emaciated anorexic girl (which it did), and be triggering to those dealing with body image issues (it probably will), or teach new bad habits (for some it will - that scares me most of all!). Here is my take on the film as I watched it and took notes, the good, the bad, and the triggering (spoiler alert).
OPENING: I must commend Mockingbird Productions for starting the film with the statement, “The film was created by and with individuals who have struggles with eating disorders, and it includes realistic depictions that may be challenging for some viewers.” I hope they don’t consider that their liability statement, but they tried. In the opening scene we see “Ellen” at a residential treatment center in art therapy class. She looks visibly bony, and it only gets worse through the film (not sure if it changes due to eating less, make-up tricks, or what, they did claim the use of some prosthetic bones, though). In articles that came out prior to the film release, it was said that Collins lost weight under supervision of a “nutritionist.” I don’t know who this “nutritionist” was, but there is no way in a true health professional that knows a thing about eating disorders would allow someone to lose that much weight, ethically, especially since she has a history of anorexia and might suffer physical and mental complications of going through the trauma of extreme weight loss again. I also use “nutritionist” because that is the word I found for the unnamed person who guided her weight loss, and if it was actually a Registered Dietitian or other licensed health professional they would (or should) have their license revoked for unethical behavior.
Weight cycling (large fluctuations up or down) is very hard on the body, which likes to maintain homeostasis (or “same-ness”). Every time we lose weight our metabolism (calorie needs) goes down. When we gain weight back our metabolism does not go all the way back to “normal,” this is why it gets harder and harder to lose weight if you have been on many diets. In addition to lowered metabolism, as was briefly mentioned in the film, the body has to rely on energy (calories) from muscle and organ tissue to survive, which can cause irreversible damage. Having Collins go through extreme weight loss again could have done real damage to her body (organs, bone density, fertility, cardiovascular system) that she might not know about until years later.
CALORIE TALK: In the following scenes there are definite strengths and weaknesses apparent to anyone who is in the field of eating disorders. As seen in the trailer, there is a scene where Ellen is quickly counting calories on a dinner plate. This is a strength in that it is very realistic to how a person with anorexia’s mind typically works, but any time calories are brought up (in a few scenes) it is a potential trigger for some viewers. It also glamorizes the “ability” of knowing what is in your food. With so many people on diets that require calorie counting, I am sure many think it would be “easier” to have anorexia to be able to not only count fast, but to abstain from eating. If you are one of those people reading this - IT IS NOT WORTH IT! (Contact me personally, I will walk you through the why nots, I don’t have the space in this article). By the way, eating disorders (ED) are not a choice. They have genetic and environmental components and are a person’s way of coping with a perceived problem or trauma, similar to the way an alcoholic turns to alcohol to numbs themself from emotion.
BEHAVIORS: Continuing on, maybe it is because I live in a part of California where cigarettes are banned in public spaces, but smoking is not nearly as common among ED/weight loss as it was 10+ years ago. Ellen is seen smoking throughout most of the film, and I hope people don’t continue that stereotype along with most EDs being anorexia nervosa (they’re not - binge eating disorder and “other specified feeding and eating disorders” are much more prevalent).
Other behaviors throughout the film that the director/actors got right are body checking (Ellen keeps checking her arm circumference with her hand, and her roommate calls her out on it), flushing meds down the toilet due to fear of weight gain (don’t go off meds without Dr approval), the roommates “barf bag” and laxatives, cutting breading off of chicken, passing out when she stood up fast (this is caused by low blood pressure when not eating enough), stair running to “burn” calories, and the doctor noticing the bruises on the bones of the spine and calls her out on doing sit-ups.
WEIGHT: More triggering, but truthful scenes, include Collins taking off her shirt to get weighed, and at the end of the film you see her naked (artfully laid on the ground to cover private areas). She is truly emaciated. This took my breath away- as you can only do so much with makeup, she had to lose a lot of weight for this role. It makes me so sad. Near the end of the film (spoiler) she has a “dream” where she is healthy and happy, and she has some weight on (probably shot first before she lost the weight), and she is gorgeous. There are no bones protruding, she is on the slim side of normal weight.
The treatment facility where most of the film takes place did a good job of having a range of body types and disorders. Most people with ED are not underweight. There was a larger binge-eater, some average-size people with bulimia and anorexia, a male, a pregnant woman, and different races (though still overwhelmingly white). While the other behaviors of binge eating and bulimia were touched on, the film was primarily about anorexia. I wish they had shown more of the other disorders, to make a point that EDs are not just thin white girls.
PROFESSIONALS: I thought the doctor, therapist, and nurse were all very well written and played. Any of their interactions were probably my favorite part of the film. In group therapy, the therapist was great at getting the participants back on topic in a realistic way, and concluded a talk with “there is never thin enough.” The nurse and doctor being more upfront and brazen with their speech is likewise true to life. They all easily call out Ellen on her behaviors and things happening to her body (ex: lanugo hair, body burning muscle and organs when not eating) in very realistic ways.
TREATMENT: The treatment facility that most of the film takes place in is a good depiction (though a bit cleaner/newer than most) of a residential treatment center. They call it inpatient in the film, which is incorrect, it is residential. Something that seemed off to me, but maybe some places do this, is that the patients were allowed to eat what and how much they wanted for every meal with no real consequences, and most of the time no professionals ate with them. From my visits to and talks with treatment centers, there is always at least one staff member present, and if they do not finish their meal, typically a liquid supplement like Ensure or Boost would be required. I did like that the anorexic man said he gets a “crazy burst of energy” when he eats. I have heard that from a lot of my clients when they start eating again.
It was realistic for the nurse to go through Ellen’s bags when she arrived at the facility. They check for any diet or self-harm tools as depicted in the film. It might give viewers ideas about how to hide things when not in treatment, though, so that worries me. The bedrooms rooms not having doors is not necessarily typical, but there would not be locks on the rooms or bathroom.
When the families are talking about treatment modalities in the waiting room I did not like that they were putting down methods like “Maudsley” (family therapy for children with anorexia), and family therapy was depicted in a bad light. Both of these can be very helpful in real life.
RELATIONSHIPS: Ellens relationship with her family, though realistic, is not necessarily typical. Though many have tumultuous relationships with family members, they are not usually so blatant (but this is a movie - so it had to be interesting). Families are also typically not the “cause” of an ED, though relationships get harder as someone sinks deeper into their ED. ED is a relationship, and it makes it very hard to get close to, or let others into, your life. It was notable that Ellen was never hugged (except by sister) until the end of the film. Unfortunately, lack of touch (whether by choice, or because family is not affectionate) is a common thing I see in clients.
Something I think was unrealistic or glamorized was the relationship that developed between Ellen and the man in treatment. I have never heard of a relationship coming out of treatment, and if it did it would probably not be a healthy one. Also, can I just say that it was weird that right after she told him about her trauma of men and touch that he kisses her and climbs on top of her without permission? That seemed wrong and was uncomfortable to watch.
CONCLUSION: This film got a lot of things right about EDs and treatment, and the acting was very realistic. So realistic, that I had to process this for a day before I could write this article. Though I have had a healthy relationship with food and my body for years (after restricting in college), and treat people with all of these issues and symptoms every day, I had flash-backs to my personal struggles, and had to go look at myself in a mirror to remind myself I am not scary-skinny. The fact that that happened concerns me for how others who are not as strong in their recovery will handle seeing this. My recommendation is that if you struggle with body image or disordered behaviors (whether or not a diagnosable ED) you should not watch it, or be ready to process it with a therapist or trusted friend. This film has a great potential to trigger people who have these propensities, and to teach bad habits that help them “get away” with disordered behaviors. That being said, viewers could find those behaviors other places online, so it is not necessarily the fault of the filmmakers.
I do think this would be a good film to watch for those who have a loved-one dealing with an ED, especially anorexia. It is a realistic depiction of high-acuity anorexia nervosa, and discusses symptoms other consumer media leaves out.
*Article is re-printable with permission. Please contact Libby for permission to put it on your site.
Registered Dietitian, Libby Parker, is the owner of Not Your Average Nutritionist, LLC - a private practice on the central coast of California. Libby offers nutrition counseling for teen-young adult, specializing in people with eating disorders. Additionally, Libby teaches nutrition courses at a local college, and works to educate on topics of eating disorder recovery with her online training site. Find out more about Libby at: www.notyouraveragenutritionist.com (check out the "online courses").
You can also sign up for free educational emails here:
To answer the second question - you should never skip meals. You can skip snacks if you are trying to lose weight, but really eating several (5-6) small meals (250-350 Cal/each) is your best bet. Have you heard the saying, "your body goes into starvation mode"? To some extent this is true. When you do not eat for several hours (more than about 5) your body instinctively slows its metabolism (the thing responsible for burning calories) to try to hold on for the famine it believes is occurring. Go to long or do this too often and it can really screw up your health and ability to maintain a healthy weight.
What about juice cleanses and detox programs? As a rule - bad idea. Most juice/detox programs on the market (not all, but ~95%) do not contain enough fiber or protein to be good for you. The fruit and veggie juices are basically broken down sugar (simple - carbohydrates) that rapidly raises your blood sugar and quickly crashes (like eating candy). This can hurt your body's ability to regulate blood-glucose and insulin production, as well as brain and body function. What can work if you are determined to use a juice or protein shake is to only change it out for one meal a day, and eat healthy protein-rich and produce/whole-grain filled meals for the other two. Diabetics should be wary of trying juicing at all.
In conclusion, eat balanced meals of lean proteins, whole grains, fruits and veggies in their whole states for best health and weight loss results.
Libby is a Registered Dietitian focusing on eating disorder treatment and prevention. She is working on the central coast to create wellness in individuals and the community
Not Your Average Nutritionist, LLC
All Rights Reserved